Several governmental agencies, in the United States and abroad, have issued reports and guidance documents which address anti-Semitism globally or in particular contexts. This section highlights some of the most important governmental documents with an emphasis on those that are relevant to anti-Semitism in American higher education
"In the spirit of the Stockholm Declaration that states: “With humanity still scarred by ...antisemitism and xenophobia the international community shares a solemn responsibility to fight those evils” the committee on Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial called the IHRA Plenary in Budapest 2015 to adopt the following working definition of antisemitism. On 26 May 2016, the Plenary in Bucharest decided to: Adopt the following non-legally binding working definition of antisemitism: ..."
Fact Sheet - SPECIAL ENVOY TO MONITOR AND COMBAT ANTI-SEMITISM :
“Anti-Semitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of anti-Semitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.
The California Assembly issued this Resolution Relative to Anti-Semitism in July 2012. It provided an important statement on the need for California public universities to take action against campus anti-Semitism.
OCR affirmed and expanded upon its 2004 guidance letter in this 2010 Obama Administration "bullying policy", which is really less about bullying than about harassment, including harassment of Jewish Americans and certain other religious groups.
The U.S. Department of State's first formal report to the U.S. Congress on global anti-Semitism is important for its formal application of the EUMC Working Definition to manifestations of the so-called "new anti-Semitism" around the world.
The Civil Rights Commission explored harassment of religious minorities, including Jewish students, in American educational institutions in its 2011 annual report (relying in part on testimony by LDB President Kenneth L. Marcus), which revealed an important gap in U.S. human rights law: to this day, the U.S. Congress has not prohibited religious harassment in federally funded educational institutions.
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights' Findings and Recommendations on Campus Anti-Semitism, principally authored by LDB President Kenneth L. Marcus during his tenure as the Commission's Staff Director, announced that campus anti-Semitism is a "serious problem" warranting closer attention and provided several recommendations that remain important today.
OCR elaborated upon its 2004 guidance letter in this official correspondence with the Institute for Jewish & Community Research, emphasizing its commitment not to turn its back on harassment of Jewish American students.
The U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civl Rights (OCR) announced for the first time in 2004 that it would investigate certain anti-Semitism claims in this landmark guidance letter authored by LDB President Kenneth L. Marcus during his tenure as acting head of OCR.
The European Union Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, a predecessor to the Fundamental Rights Agency, developed this internationally authoritative Working Definition of Antisemitism, which is important for the specific examples it provides of anti-Israel incidents which meet the definition of anti-Semitism.
Lesley Klaff Lesley Klaff is a senior lecturer in law at Sheffield Hallam University and an affiliate professor of law at Haifa University. She is expert in law and anti-Semitism, social and legal theory, and the English legal system.